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by Gloria Mark
Multi-tasking is a way of life for information workers. In this talk I will present empirical results from fieldwork observations and experiments over the last few years which detail the extent to which information workers multitask, irrespective of their organizational role. I will discuss how multi-tasking impacts various aspects of collaboration and communication in the workplace. More recently, our current work uses sensors to measure multi-tasking. Not only do information workers switch continually among multiple tasks but they also switch continually among interactions in varied workplace contexts, such as the work home and organization. We found that people compensate for interruptions by working faster, but this comes at a price of experiencing more stress. These results challenge the traditional way that most IT is designed to organize information, i.e. in terms of distinct tasks. Instead, I will discuss how IT should support information organization in a way consistent with how most people were found to organize their work, which is in terms of much larger thematically connected units of work. I will present a prototype of a technology that can help support people in their multi-tasking and will also discuss how the results present opportunities for new social and technical solutions to support multi-tasking in the workplace.
In team collaboration we deal with collaboration among team members that may either belong to the same enterprise (intraenterprise collaboration) or among team members belonging to different companies (e.g., in research projects). Social media provide an efficient and accessible means of encouraging and supporting team members working together on shared objects, i.e., performing collaborative tasks within these teams. Due to ease of use and access, especially small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) may profit a lot from social media in team collaboration. Based on a number of case studies on the application of social media in SMEs, we analyze the adoption and implementation, the motivation of team members and their benefit, and success factors of the utilization of social media for team collaboration. To provide a set of case studies that allow for detailed comparison and in-depth analysis of multiple case studies, a standardized case study structure is introduced.
For the canon of important works of art, lots of information is available on the Internet. Dierent Web platforms exist that show artworks with additional information and an Art historical description. While this information is suitable for experts in Art history, users without this expert knowledge may nd this information hard to access because of a vocabulary mismatch between experts and laypersons. In order to allow users with dierent expertise to communicate and comprehend Art in their own vocabulary we have created the explorARTorium (www.explorARTorium.info), which visualises artworks in context and allows users to browse along dierent narratives. The explorARTorium also offers the possibility to annotate artworks. We have therefore collected a Folksonomy about artworks. Applying Data Mining algorithms on this Folksonomy, we show that the reproduction of Art historical facts is possible. Moreover, we are able to analyse the extent of Art historical knowledge among people of the 21st century.
W3C’s Video in the Web activity aims at a better integration of media within the Web. In this paper, we show how two specifications currently under development within this activity, i.e., Media Fragment URIs and Media Annotations, can be combined within media-enabled Web applications. More specifically, we introduce a number of extensions for the Media Annotations ontology in order to close the gap with Media Fragment URIs. Further, a fully integrated Web application has been developed that shows how both specifications can work together within an HTML5 environment. This application relies on NinSuna, our media delivery platform targeted at multichannel publication that provides server-side support for both Media Fragment URIs and Media Annotations.
Die österr. Wasserkraftwerke erzeugen sauberen Strom in ökologisch hochsensibler Umgebung. Umfangreiche Einrichtungen und Messwerte müssen laufend geprüft werden.
Seit 2003 wird das Web-gestützte Knowledge-Management-System „Forelle“ eingesetzt, um die erforderlichen Prüfungen aus Gesetzen, Bescheiden und technischen Vorgaben klar zu definieren und deren fristgerechte Abwicklung sicherzustellen: Compliance Controlling
Erfahrungen aus dem praktischen Betrieb, das Zusammenspiel mit SAP, RIS.gv.at und digitalen Archiven, sowie die Frage der „angemessenen Kontrolle“ im Risikomanagement.
Expert profiling and identification are important to both knowledge workers and organizations. To this end, skills management and expert recommender systems facilitate the management of skills and competencies and help find appropriate experts to meet a particular need. In this paper, we present a technique for generating evolving expert profiles of individuals composed of their skills and competencies using heterogeneous data from divergent sources of information. We use self-declarations, completed learning activities, and previous work experience to generate the initial profile. Recommendations, “wisdom of the crowd”, direct observations of online and offline activities, and content generated by the individual both within the organization and on the Web are then used to enrich the profiles and to assess and validate skills and competencies over time.
We present information extraction for a semantic personalised tourist recommender system. The main challenges in this setting are that information is spread across various information sources, it is usually stored in proprietary formats and is available in dierent languages in varying degrees of accuracy. We address the mentioned challenges and describe our realization and ideas how to deal with each of them. In our paper we describe scraping and extracting keywords from dierent web portals with different languages, how we deal with missing multi-lingual data, and how we identify the same objects from dierent sources.
Annotations allow users to associate additional information with existing resources. Using proprietary and closed systems on the Web, users are already able to annotate multimedia resources such as images, audio and video. So far, however, this information is almost always kept locked up and inaccessible to the Web of Data. We believe that an important step to take is the integration of multimedia annotations and the Linked Data principles. This should allow clients to easily publish and consume, thus exchange annotations about resources via commonWeb standards.We first present the current status of the Open Annotation Collaboration, an international initiative that is currently working on annotation interoperability specifications based on best practices from the Linked Data effort. Then we present two use cases and early prototypes that make use of the proposed annotation model and present lessons learned and discuss yet open technical issues.
In Unternehmen des produzierenden Gewerbes ist der Anteil der computeraffinen Mitarbeiter meist gering, was jedoch nicht heißt, dass hier keine Know-how intensiven Prozesse stattfinden. Gerade für Unternehmen, die eine Nische bedienen, ist das Know-how der Mitarbeiter von sehr großer Bedeutung. Verfahrensmechaniker z.B. haben zwar meist Grundkenntnisse in der Bedienung eines PCs, sie sind jedoch nicht so computeraffin, dass sie Informationen aus einem Wiki-System oder ähnliche Softwarelösungen abholen oder gar einstellen würden. Trotzdem ist die Wissensverteilung und Wissenserzeugung gerade im Qualitätsbereich von großer Bedeutung. Der Vortrag soll einen Einblick in die Herausforderungen eines produzierenden Unternehmens mit Know-how intensiven Prozessen geben und einen Lösungsansatz anhand eines konkreten Qualitätsprojekts darstellen wie Wissensmanagement auch ohne spezielle Softwarelösung funktionieren kann.
Although the concept of knowledge work has been around for fifty years and many interventions have been made in order to support this type of work, information is scarce on the effects of such interventions. This paper presents the results of a multiplecase study consisting of seven cases related to six European organisations and one network of organisations on the topics performance, measures and plans concerning knowledge maturing.
The paper lays out the design of the empirical study, the methods used, the results we gained and the interpretation that we performed on the basis of the results. We collected a number of reasons why organisations deem themselves as outperforming others with respect to knowledge maturing, measures that have proven successful when being employed in a certain constellation or are planned by the organisations. Out of those, we were able to elicit levers and clearly describe the effects those levers are perceived to create with respect to general handling of knowledge and their effects on knowledge maturing.
Effective video-based Web information system deployment is still challenging, while the recent widespread of multimedia further raises the demand for new online audiovisual document edition and presentation alternatives. Hypervideo, a specialization of hypermedia focusing on video, can be used on the Web to provide a basis for video-centric documents and to allow more elaborated practices of online video. In this paper, we propose an annotation-driven model to conceptualize hypervideos, promoting a clear separation between video content/metadata and their various potential presentations. Using the proposed model, features of hypervideo are grafted to wider videobased Web documents in a Web standards-compliant manner. The annotation-driven hypervideo model and its implementation offer a general framework to experiment with new interaction modalities for video-based knowledge communication on theWeb.
With the increased popularity of Web 2.0 services in the last years data privacy has become a major concern for users. The more personal data users reveal, the more difficult it becomes to control its disclosure in the web. However, for Web 2.0 service providers, the data provided by users is a valuable source for offering effective, personalised data mining services. One major application is the detection of spam in social bookmarking systems: in order to prevent a decrease of content quality, providers need to distinguish spammers and exclude them from the system. They thereby experience a conflict of interests: on the one hand, they need to identify spammers based on the information they collect about users, on the other hand, they need to respect privacy concerns and process as few personal data as possible.
It would therefore be of tremendous help for system developers and users to know which personal data are needed for spam detection and which can be ignored. In this paper we address these questions by presenting a data privacy aware feature engineering approach. It consists of the design of features for spam classification which are evaluated according to both, performance and privacy conditions. Experiments using data from the social bookmarking system BibSonomy show that both conditions must not exclude each other.
Designing information and communication technologies (ICT) for knowledge work is a primary challenge in research and practice of knowledge management. Knowledge workers supposedly organize and manage their workplaces, at least partly themselves, which needs to be considered when designing ICT for supporting their daily knowledge-intense activities. It is considered useful for designers of knowledge management systems (KMS) to look into the results of behavioral science in information systems concerning the adoption, acceptance and assimilation of ICT. Thus, this paper proposes a model that contributes to bridging the gap between design science and behavioral science in the domain of knowledge management. In this regard, widely recognized behavioral models that aim at explaining organizational and human behavior in conjunction with ICT are analyzed in order to extract important factors influencing the successful application of KMS with respect to the adoption by an organization or organizational unit, acceptance by individual knowledge workers, and assimilation into knowledge processes and practices. By combining, categorizing, and structuring these factors, we developed a comprehensive model to be taken into account in software design and evaluation processes from various perspectives. Moreover, we discuss a case example in which this model is applied to the design of a KMS.
Multimedia is currently underrepresented in the Web of Data. This is due to the lack of integrated means to describe, publish, and interlink multimedia content. This paper presents a framework for the publication of media content and its metadata as Linked Data, the Linked Media Framework (LMF). The LMF enables to store and retrieve content and metadata for media resources and resource fragments in a unified way.
Der Staatspreis Unternehmensqualität ist eine Auszeichnung für exzellentes Arbeiten und konsequente Weiterentwicklung eines Unternehmens. Es ist der einzige Preis, den man nicht gewinnen kann, sondern den man sich erarbeitet. Dabei unterziehen sich Unternehmen einer intensiven Bewertung durch Experten aus der Praxis. Als Grundlage für die Beurteilung dient dabei das EFQM Excellence Modell, das mit neun Kriterien alle Unternehmensbereiche und Ergebnisse evaluiert. Die Bewertung erfolgt durch unabhängige Assessoren aus unterschiedlichsten Unternehmen und Organisationen. Die Plattform zum Staatspreis Unternehmensqualität ist für Bewerber, Assessoren und die Jury zugänglich und dient dem gemeinsamen Arbeitsprozess durch Unterstützung der Kommunikation sowie des Datentransfers.
Der Vortrag stellt Methoden dar, die zur Explizierung von Erfahrungswissen dienen. Dabei werden einerseits entsprechende Methoden aus dem Wissensmanagement und andererseits aus dem Systemsichen Coaching beschrieben. Bei den Coaching-Methoden richtet sich das Hauptaugenmerk auf spezielle Fragetechniken. Abschließend werden die Hauptergebnisse aus einer Umfrage unter Coaches zum Thema „Heben des Erfahrungsschatzes“ referiert.
Dank einer in der Credit Suisse intern entwickelten Wissenstransfer-Methodik bleibt unersetzliches Wissen (implizites und explizites Wissen) in der Organisation erhalten und wird an neue Mitarbeitende weitergegeben – auch wenn Schlüsselpersonen den Arbeitsplatz verlassen, z.B. wegen Pensionierung, internem Job-Wechsel, längerem Urlaub oder Kündigung. Das in Theorie und Praxis erprobte Vorgehen wurde in der Begleitung von mehr 230 Schlüsselpersonen entwickelt und in der Organisation seit Anfang 2008 eingesetzt. Neben den allgemeinen Wissensmanagement-Aspekten für das Unternehmen fördert es einerseits die Personalentwicklung und andererseits ist es auch Grundlage zur Organisationsentwicklung: Aufgaben und Funktionen werden transparent und können so nachhaltig verändert werden. Interne Auftraggeber des optimierten Wissenstransfers haben die Methodik mit der bisherigen Einarbeitung am Arbeitsplatz verglichen und eine Verkürzung der Einarbeitungszeit von durchschnittlich 30% festgestellt. Nach dem Abzug des Aufwandes für dessen Durchführung bleibt eine beträchtliche Effizienzsteigerung für die Organisation.
by Peter Kraker
Meet other PhD students from all over Europe researching in the multi-disciplinary field of knowledge management: "Madness" presentation of selected PhD projects; "Fishbowl" debate on opportunities and challenges of a PhD; Come together and networking
7th–9th September 2011